Chapter 28: America on the World Stage 1899-1909

"Little Brown Brothers" in the Philippines:
  • Filipinos wanted independence, US refused, Filipino insurrection Feb. 1899 led by Emilio Aguinaldo.
  • Filipinos used Guerilla warfare and US used very brutal tactics like "water cure" and reconcentration camps. Aguinaldo was captured in 1901, but fighting continued for a while.
  • 1899 President McKinley made the Philippine Commission to figure out how the Philippines would be governed - headed by Filipino-loving (and quite hefty) William H. Taft.
  • American money used to improve roads, sanitation, public health, education (made English a second language), but Filipinos hated Americanization. They wanted independence!
  • Read picture caption pg. 648
The Filipinos:
  • With Chinese immigration banned, Hawaii and Pacific coast states turned to Filipinos for cheap agricultural labor.
  • They also came to the mainland like California
  • White/Asian intermarriage banned
Hinging the Door Open to China:
  • After China got owned by Japan (1894-95), Russia and Germany moved in
  • America feared Chinese markets would be monopolized by Europeans
  • Secretary of State (under McKinley) John Hay - 1899 - dispatched "Open Door note" - urged great powers to respect certain Chinese rights and the ideal of fair competition. Italy (who had no stake in China), Britain, Germany, France, Japan, and Russia (but not really) consented.
  • 1900 - Superpatriotic Chinese "Boxers" killed over 200 whites (because they wanted European powers out of China) - "Boxer Rebellion." Multinational rescue force (including Americans) quelled the rebellion.
  • 1900 Hay announced Open Door policy would embrace territorial integrity of China and commercial integrity
Imperialism or Bryanism in 1900?
  • 1900 McKinley renominated for Republicans (endorsed prosperity, the gold standard, and overseas expansion). VP nominee was Teddy Roosevelt.
  • Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan (who still supported free-silver). Bryan said the paramount issue of the election was Republican overseas imperialism (he was against it).
  • Republicans said Bryanism was the paramount issue - Bryan would rock the boat of prosperity with free silver inflation
  • McKinley triumphed. It wasn't a mandate for or against imperialism (since many people voted for him just to keep silver Bryan out). If there was a mandate, it was for prosperity and protection.
TR: Brandisher of the Big Stick:
  • 1901, 6 months after serving in the new term, McKinley was murdered by a deranged anarchist (gotta love those deranged anarchists! just kidding)
  • Theodore Roosevelt became president, people were afraid because he was such a crazayy, but he promised to carry out McKinley's policies.
  • He was from a wealth NY family, Harvard grad, cowboy, Rough Rider. Energetic, athletic, loved to fight, egoist, preached virtue, what a champ!
Colombia Blocks the Canal:
  • Canal was needed across Central American isthmus - strengthen navy (increase mobility), make easier defence of Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and Philippines.
  • Hay-Puancefote Treaty with Britain in 1901 gave US a free hand to build the canal and fortify it.
  • 1902 Congress decided on the Panama route (they had a choice of Nicaragua too). Wrote up a treaty with Colombia for that area for $10 million - Colombian Senate rejected - TR angry.
Uncle Sam Creates Puppet Panama:
  • Engineer Philippe Bunau-Varilla (New Panama Canal Company) joined with revolutionaries - Colombian troops came to stop uprising, but US blocked the isthmus.
  • Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty signed (gave US a 10 mile zone for canal for $40 million)
Completing the Canal and Appeasing Colombia:
  • US's "Rape of Panama" made Latin America fearful of US - "Big Brother" policy launched. TR said he had to get involved and spur the uprising in Panama because Colombia had wronged them (by refusing their treaty)...but technically he could have made the route through Nicaragua.
  • 1904 construction begin on the canal. Sanitation in that area was heavily improved. Canal finished in 1914.
TR's Perversion of Monroe's Doctrine:
  • Latin American nations like Venezuela and Dominican Republic were in debt with European creditors (Russia and Germany)
  • 1903 - Germany sank boats in Venezuela to demand payment
  • TR didn't want them debt-collecting in Latin America - could lead to them staying and violating the Monroe Doctrine
  • Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine - in future financial affairs with Latin America, US would intervene, take over customhouses, pay off debts, keep Europeans out!
  • 1905, US took over tariff collections for Dom. Rep.
  • Promoted "bad neighbor" policy
  • US turned the Caribbean into "Yankee Lake"
  • 1906 - US marines went to Cuba to tame revolutionary disorders => Latin America started thinking the US had too much power
Roosevelt on the World Stage
  • Japan went to war with Russia, they were owning, but ran short of men and yen. Asked TR to help sponsor peace negotiations
  • Both sides met at Portsmouth, New Hampshire 1905 - Japan wanted Russia to pay indemnities and get island of Sakhalin - TR compromised that Japan get no indemnities and half of Sakhalin.
  • 1906, TR helped arrange conference in Spain to settle North African disputes => he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906
  • Relations with Russia and Japan soured.
Japanese Laborers in California:
  • 1884 - Japan allowed temporary laborers to work in Hawaii - many came to Cali from there - cheap labor
  • San Fransisco school board ordered segregation of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students from whites - MUY CONTRAVERSIAL! - TR called SF school board to the white house => "Gentleman's Agreement" (1907-1908) - Californians repealed school order and Japanese agreed to stop flow of laborers to the US.
  • 1907 TR sent Great White Fleet - 16 battleships - went to Latin America, Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia, Japan!! They were greeted really friendlily
  • Root-Takahira agreement with Japan (1908) - respect each others territory and uphold Open Door to China.