- Economy stagnated! Why?
- Shift from manufacturing to services
- Vietnam War + Great Society welfare + no tax increases = inflation
- Cost of living tripled in the 70s
- Germany and Japan had modernized plants, America had not.
- Stalemated war and Vietnam and economy in America
Nixon "Vietnamizes" the War:
- "Vietnamization" - withdraw the 540,000 US troops from S Vietnam over time => Nixon Doctrine: honor existing defense commitments, but in the future, other countries had to fight their own wars.
- "Doves" still protested - Oct. 1969 - Boston Common protest
- Nixon speech Nov. 1969 - "silent majority" supported the war. VP Spiro Agnew went after anti-war media and protesters.
- Vietnam War - long, costly, draftees were lower class (many blacks), low morale. To end war quicker, Nixon ordered attack on Cambodia.
Cambodianizing the Vietnam War:
- April 1970, Nixon (w/o Congress) ordered US forces to clean out enemy sanctuaries in Cambodia => nationwide protests: arson, rock-throwing. Some killed in turmoil by National Guard.
- Nixon withdrew troops from Cambodia June 1970, 2 months later.
- Senate repealed Gulf of Tonkin "blank check." Gov reduced draft and period of draftability. 26th amendment - lowered voting age to 18.
- 1971 New York Times published top-secret Pentagon Papers -lies of Kennedy and Johnson administrations. Leaked by Daniel Ellsberg.
Nixon's Détente w/ Beijing and Moscow:
- Nixon and national security adviser Dr. Henry A. Kissinger decided to play off big Commies - China and USSR - against each other to pressure N Vietnam into peace
- Feb 1972 - Nixon went to China - improved relations. May 1972 Nixon went to USSR - they were in need of food and afraid of US backed by China. The decided to back US, détente.
- 1972 - great grain deal. 3 years, US sell $750 million in grain to USSR
- Anti-ballistic missile (ABM) treaty - limited each nation to 2 clusters of defense missiles. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) - freeze # of nuclear missiles for 5 years.
- Both nations made MIRVs (more warheads to a rocket)
A New Team on the Supreme Bench:
- Earl Warren Court - concern for the individual
- (1965) Griswold v. Connecticut - right to use contraceptives - "privacy"
- (1963) Gideon v. Wainwright - criminal defendant right to attorney
- (1964) Escobedo and (1966) Miranda - right to remain silent
- (1964) NY Times v. Sullivan - could only sue for libel if they could prove malice was intended.
- (1962) Engel v. Vitale and (1963) School District of Abington Township v. Schempp - against required prayer and Bible-teaching in schools.
- (1964) Reynolds v. Sims - state legislatures must be reapportioned according to human population.
- 1969 - Nixon nominated Warren E. Burger to replace retiring Warren, by 1971 Nixon had appointed 4/9 conservative justices => new court actually remained quite liberal.
Nixon on the Home Front:
- Continues welfare programs! Increased $$ for Food Stamps and Medicaid, AFDC (Aid to Families w/ Dependent Children [single mothers]). Supplemental Security Income (SSI) - poor, old, disabled. Raised SS w/ rising standard of living (inflation!). [Reduced poverty to 11%]
- Philadelphia Plan of 1969: construction-trade unions needed timetables for hiring black people -> extended to all federal contracts. Affirmative action was taken to the next level. Griggs v. Duke Power Co. (1971) - prohibited intelligence tests that might be used to exclude minorities.
- 1970 - Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) - reduced auto emissions and cleaned waterways. Rachel Carson - 1962 - Silent Spring.
- Inflation! 1971 - 90-day wage and prize freeze. Took US off gold standard and devalued dollar.
- "Southern strategy" for election of 1972.
The Nixon Landslide of 1972:
- 1972 - N Vietnam invaded through DMZ w/ tanks -> Nixon launched bombing on cities and harbors. This stopped N Vietnamese offensive.
- Democrats: George McGovern -> pull troops out in 90 days - tried to appeal to leftists and youth.
- Republicans: Nixon -> winding down the war (had gone from 540,000 to 30,000 troops). "Peace is at hand"
- Nixon won 520 to 17. Congress was Democrat majority.
Bombing North Vietnam to the Peace Table:
- Met for peace, no settlement agreed, fighting -> Nixon launched intense 2-week bombing of N Vietnam to get 'em back to conference table.
- Jan 1973 - cease-fire arrangements. US was to withdraw remaining troops, S Nam could still get support but no more troops. N Nam allowed to keep troops in S Nam.
- Peace or American retreat?
- June 1972, burglary at Democratic HQ (Watergate apartments in DC)
- Republican Committee for Re-election of the Prez - CREEP - raised $ unlawfully, sabotage against Democrats. 5 CREEPers arrested at Watergate.
- White House aids and advisors in on the fraud. Illegal use of FBI and CIA and IRS to audit or harass political opponents. White House "enemies list"
- 1973-1974: TV hearings. John Dean (former White House lawyer) testified that top dogs, including Nixon were involved in covering up Watergate.
The Great Tape Controversy:
- July 1973 - aide reported White House and phone calls were wire-tapped. Wanted tapes to support Dean's testimony, Nixon refused on executive privilege (confidentiality)
- VP Spiro Agnew forced to resign for taking bribes. 25th amendment. Gerald Ford replaced Agnew.
- Oct 1973 "Saturday Night Massacre" - Archibald Cox ("Special prosecutor" for Nixon) issued subpoena for tapes. Fired Cox.
The Secret Bombing of Cambodia and the War Powers Act:
- 1973, it was discovered that Nixon had ordered the Air Force to bomb Cambodia in 1969, 14 months before it went public
- Nixon continued to bomb Cambodia after 1973 cease-fire -> compromised to end bombing and get approval next time.
- Cambodia torn from blasts, economy, Pol Pot "killing fields"
- Nov 1973 - War Powers Act - Prez must report to Congress 48 hours after committing troops or enlarging combat.
- Draft had ended. Congress wanted to reduce troops abroad (Europe). Nixon said no.
The Arab Oil Embargo and the Energy Crisis:
- Oct 1973 - Syrian and Egyptian attacks on Israel. Nixon had $2 billion in war materials air-lifted to Israel - worked!
- Arab made oil embargo on US and Israel lovers.
- => Energy crisis. Alaska pipeline, national speed limit.
- Lifter embargo 1974, but quadrupled prices -> inflation! -> International Energy Agency
The Unmaking of a President:
- Supreme Court made Nixon fork over the tapes -> proved he was involved in Watergate cover-up -> publicized
- If impeached, his removal would be certain. If he resigned, hew would at least get retirement $$
- 1974 boo-hoo farewell address
- Showed that public opinion and self-government were legit in US
The First Unelected President:
- Gerald Ford - some called him dumb
- Pardoned Nixon - "buddy deal" accusers said. He just wanted to get on w/ it.
- 1975 - Helsinki, Finland - détente agreements. Legitimizes Sov boundaries in exchange for more people and info exchange.
- Sovs didn't suffice. One-way street. Criticized.
Defeat in Vietnam:
- 1975 N Nam moved in and S Nam collapsed
- Remaining Americans and many Vietnamese evacuated to America
- Longest war. $118 billion. 56,000 dead. America lost face :( Pride wounded.
Feminist Victories and Defeats:
- 1970 - Stride for Equality
- 1972 - Title IX - prohibited sexism in fed-assisted education programs/activities -sports.
- 1972 Equal Rights Amendments (ERA) - ratified by many states, but not enough to Consitutionalize. Phyllis Schlafly opposed. ERA died 1982.
- (1971) Reed v. Reed, (1973) Frontiero v. Richardson - no sexism in employment
- (1973) Roe v. Wade - legalized abortion
- 1972, Nixon vetoed nationwide public day care
- Family values? Divorces, baby-slaughter, yikes!
The Seventies in Black and White:
- (1974) Milliken v. Bradley - ruled integration couldn't require students to move cross school-district lines => "white flight"
- Affirmative action controversial. (1978) Allan Bakke didn't get into med school cuz they favored minorties. Supreme court rule no preference to any group - colorblind.
- (1978) US v. Wheeler - active American tribes got limited sovereignty - national gov., not states
The Bicentennial Campaign and Carter Victory:
- 1976. Repubs: Geral Ford
- Democrats: James "Jimmy" Carter -> "I'll never lie to you." Georgian, Baptist, uncorrupt, "outsider"
- Carter won 297 to 240. South and blacks. Democratic Congress.
- Created Department of Energy, cut taxes 1978, pardoned draft evaders, rubbed Congress'
"fur" the wrong way
Carter's Humanitarian Diplomacy:
- Sept 1978 - Camp David, Maryland - Israel (Begin), Egypt (Sadat), and Carter (mediator). Signed accord: Israel agreed to relinquish territory from 1967 war, Egypt promised to respect Israel's borders.
- 1979 - diplomatic relations w/ China
- Give Panama Canal to Panamanians by 2000
- Cuban and Sov commies went to Africa to support uprisings.
Economic and Energy Woes:
- Inflation - soaring oil prices, America was dependent on international trade
- Bank loans had 20% interest - small biz and construction failed.
- Carter called for legislation for energy conservation (including stop makin gas guzzling cars). People and Congress didn't give a damn, so they didn't do anything.
- 1979 Muslim extremists overthrew the westernized/secular Iranian gov. - hated US -no oil.
- OPEC => prices up
- July 1979 - Carter Camp David meeting w/ 100 leaders -> speech: America's too materialistic. (what the heck?)
- Fired 4 secretaries in Cabinet. Got more Georgians.
Foreign Affairs and Iranian Imbroglio:
- June 1979, Carter met w/ Sov leader Leonid Brezhnev to sign SALT II agreements - limist level of lethal weapons - stalled in Congress.
- Nov 1979 - Islamo-crazies stormed US embassy in Iran and took occupants hostage - wanted exiled Shah back.
- Sov army invaded Afghanistan - they fought back - Sov's Vietnam.
- Carter wanted to negociate w/ Iran, but there was no government. -> Rescue mission - equipment failure, planes ran into each other, 8 rescuers died. Fail blog would have a field day with this.