Short Answer Test - Key Facts

Based on Cashion's Test Review on her site:

This is also an outline for the study group Wednesday, 6'clock, Dickey's.

1) Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1946, and 1937: when President proclaimed existence of foreign war, no American could sail on a belligerent ship, sell or transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans to a belligerent.

=> Neutrality Act of 1939: European democracies could buy American war matierals on a "cash-and-carry" basis - they would have to transport in their own ships (to avoid attacks on US ships), and they had to pay in cash (to avoid debt). President could forbid US merchant ships from "war zones"

  • FDR Lend-Lease Bill: lend American arms to democracies, and have them (or equivalents) returned once the war ended - "to further promote the defense of the US," "send guns not sons"
  • Won in Congress with great majorities. $50 billion worth of arms was sent by 1945.
  • This was an economic declaration of war, and abandonment of neutrality
  • 2) 1937 Chicago, FDR made "Quarantine Speech" - called for positive endeavors (economic embargoes) to quarantine agressors -> isolationist outraged, FDR retreated. REREAD.

    3) FDR eager to join Latin Americans to defend Western Hemisphere - enforced good neighbor policy, 1933 declared nonintervention

  • 1934 took marines out of Haiti, released Cuba from Platt amendment (but kept Gitmo), loosened grip on Panama
  • Mexican government seize US oil properties, FDR worked out a settlement instead of using armed intervention

    5) Office of Price Administration -kept war inflation prices down and had people ration foods like meat and butter.

    6) Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill) - sent former soldiers to technical schools or colleges - $14.5 billion tax-dollars. Enabled Veteran's Administration $16 billion in loans for veterans to buy homes, farms, and small businesses.

    7) Feb. 1945, Stalin, FDR, and Churchill met at Yalta (along Black Sea)

  • Stalin agreed Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania should have representative gov. w/ free elections
  • Big Three announced plans for international peacekeeping organization - the United Nations
  • FDR wanted Stalin to enter war w/ Japan, Stalin agreed when FDR offered S Sakhalin Island (Japan), Kurile Islands (Japan), Manchurian railroads, ports Dairen and Port Arthur (China)
  • Critics said FDR sold out Chiang Kai-Shek and contributed to Communist overthrow 4 years later
  • Apologists said FDR was setting limits to Stalin
  • Yalta wasn't drafting peace settlement, just sketching intentions to test limits of others.

    8) Germany was divided into 4 zones (US, Britain, France, USSR). Germany was divided by east and west because of Soviets.

  • Berlin (on Soviet side) occupied by big 4, USSR tried to choke off Berlin (1948), but US delivered supplies by air.
  • USSR llifted blockade in 1949 - governments of East Germany and West Germany formally established (they would remain divided until 1990).

  • Berlin was often considered the center of the war - it was occupied by both the Soviets and Americans - and represented the division of Germany.

    9) Truman Doctrine: made policy of US supporting free people resisting Communist pressures. Against: "It's the US's job to defend any crackpot nation claiming to be resisting Commies?"... "How can polarizing the world promote peace?" For: spurred by fear of isolationism.

    SoS George C. Marshall => Marshall Plan: European nations create joint plan for economic recovery and US would give 'em money. Met in Paris, July 1947. (offered $ to USSR if they changed political stuff, but they refused of course).

    10) USSR llifted blockade in 1949 - governments of East Germany and West Germany formally established (they would remain divided until 1990).

    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) signed in Washington April 1949 (attack on one=attack on all, respond w/ armed force if necessary). Senate approved July 1949

    Sept 1949, Soviets tested their atomic bomb. America developed the H-bomb (many times worse) in 1952. Soviets had one by 1953. Nuclear fear brought standstill.

    2 more world turning points in 1949?

    11) Why is Korean war considered a limited war ??

    Jerry's opinion (no I don't know who Jerry is): Both sides would have been glad if they could have conquered the other, of course, but they knew about the costs. As they were about the same strenght and still had large reserves, there was no sense in making it bigger than it was. Expanding it to other countries or even taking the nuclear option, as some militaries suggested, would have lead to world wide war without a winner. The experience of World War 2 was still very close.The limitation of the war on Korea (what was bad enough) and the final compromise was the result of politicians realizing, that it was not worth WW III and maybe killing all mankind.

    Max's opinion: Because we did not use all of our military assets (i.e. nuclear weapons) to win the war but mainly because we were only fighting to comply with the UN directive to repel the North Koreans from South Korean territory. We were not fighting to conquer or defeat the North Koreans or make them a subject people as had been done in previous wars. Considering what is there now this may have been a mistake but then again fighting the Chinese or worse yet the nuclear armed Soviets back then didn't seem like a wise idea either. I guess you can say they did the best they could with the information they had back then!

    12) Review and discuss people!!!

    13) 1948 election subsection - REREAD