A Smorgasbord of Lecture Notes

  • Conscription=draft! Socialists were against it, *gaspp* the 13th amendment!!
  • Bonds were the main way they raised money for war effort. They borrowed money through "Liberty loans". Income taxes were raised also, to where the average Joe (Buckles) got taxed too. Railroad tickets, telegram messages, etc. taxed.
  • War Industries Board - wealthy Bernard Baruch
  • Food Administration - Herbert Hoover - "wheatless Wednesdays," "victory gardens"
  • Committee on Public Information - George Creel "4-minute men" made speeches. Propaganda posters.
  • Schenck vs. United States 1919 - Charles Schenck (Secretary of American Socialist party) - mailed anti-draft literature (supported in his mind by the 13th amendment). Arrested for obstructing war efforts. Oliver Wendell Holmes ruled during peacetime it would be unconstitutional to restrict the 1st amendment in such a way, but because our nation is in "clear and present danger," it's perfectly ok to arrest Schenck for causing trouble.

Red Scare:
  • Bolshevik Revolution, post-war paranoia and nativism led to fear of Communist take-over and spies.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti - atheist anarchist Italians -unfair trial and electric chair'd
  • Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer - Palmer Raids: investigated communists & other suspicious characters (Espionage Act hadn't been repealed and Wilson was incapacitated with his stroke and all, so Palmer ran free!) He had local law enforcement arrest anybody red, anarchist, etc. Palmer, along with some others, received mail bombs.
  • Quota system is a consequence of the Red Scare (remember BOTH the immigration restrictions)
  • KKK - reread paragraph in textbook

Why didn't the US sign the Versailles Treaty?

  • Reread pages 718-725
  • Republican majority in Congressional elections of 1918 made Wilson not exactly able to speak for his country, like the other leaders could
  • Wilson went to Paris for the peace settlements himself, and didn't take any Republicans with him!! Henry Cabot Lodge would have been the logical choice, but they hated each other.
  • Irreconcilables are NOT necessarily Lodge reservationists. Some of them were Democrats and pacifists. They were ISOLATIONISTS!!!! They're likeeee "reservations or not, we ain't signing this League of Nations thang." Senators William Borah and the other one.
  • BIGGEST LODGE RESERVATION: He thought LoN could lead US into war without Congress declaring it! This would be catastrophicccccccccc!
  • Pobre Woodrow Wilson had a stroke and was unable to do stuff. His all-or-nothing attitude also led to the failure to agree on LoN bill. In the "Solemn Referendum", America voted for tuna-faced Harding, so that decided it.

Roaring 20s:

  • 1st decade where majority of people live in suburban areas
  • Warren G. Harding - Teapot Dome Scandal, Washington Naval Disarmament
  • Calvin Coolidge - Kellogg-Briand
  • Herbert Hoover - the depression begins, Hoover-Stimson Doctrine
  • Know the Dawes Plan
  • Margaret Sanger - mother of birth control (and Planned Parenthood to kill the poor babies!)
  • African Americans - great migration north. 1920s Harlem Renaissance - birth of pride in African-American culture. Langston Hughes -poet. Duke Ellington and Louis Armstrong - jazz. Marcus Garvey - quite a character...."back to Africa," etc.
  • Radio -preachers - Billy Sunday
  • Prohibition was epic fail. No enforcement...they were all bribed. And people liked to drank.
  • Henry Ford - first big industrialist w/ assembly line, treated workers well
  • Frederick Taylor - scientific management
  • John Dewey - education for life
  • Hoover - RFC (Reconstruction Finance Corporation) - helped banks and companies (bailout) in hopes prosperity would trickle down
  • Calvin Coolidge would not put up with Boston police strike