Chapter 6: The Duel for North America 1608-1763

  • Britain, France, and Spain held stake in North American continent
  • 9 world wars - America took par in all

France Finds a Foothold in Canada:

  • Latecomer in scramble for New World - foreign wars, domestic strife, butcher of Huguenots (Protestants)
  • Edict of Nantes - 1598 - tolerate Protestants - France became strong. King Louis XIV
  • 1608 - Quebec established - leader Samuel de Champlain - Father of New France.
  • Friendly relations with Huron Indians - fought against Iroquois Confederation
  • King controlled government - autocratic - no right to trial by jury
  • Population grew slowly

New France Fans Out:

  • French fur-trappers pursued the beaver - "coureurs de bois"
  • Indians recruited into fur trade - disease and alcohol
  • They explored everywhere! And extinguished beavers
  • French Jesuit missionaries came to convert Indians - explorers and geographers
  • Antoine Cadillac - Detroit. Robert de la Salle - Louisiana. French made posts in Mississippi and Louisiana, and New Orleans.

The Clash of Empires:

  • King William's War (1689-1697) and Queen Anne's War (1702-1713). British colonists vs. French "coureurs de bois" - primitive guerrilla warfare, Indians on both sides. Spain and France allies.
  • Peace treaty - Ultrecht 1713 - Britain won Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Hudson Bay
  • British Captain Jenkins got ear sliced off by Spanish. War of Jenkin's Ear 1739 between British and Spaniards. Led to large-scale War of Austrian Succession in Europe and King George's War in America. France allied with Spain.

George Washington Inaugurates War with France:

  • Rivalry for Ohio Valley. British colonial families (including the Washington's) gained legal "rights" over part of Ohio. French were building forts here.
  • George Washington (head of militia) went to survey land, saw French troops, shot leader. French returned w/ reinforcements and Washington was forced to surrender at Fort Necessity - 1754.
  • British uprooted French Acadians to as far as Louisiana ("Cajuns")

Global War and Colonial Disunity:

  • The French and Indian War. (The Seven Years War). Fought in America, Europe, the West Indies, the Philippines, Africa, and on the ocean.
  • Britain and Prussia vs. France, Spain, Austria, and Russia. German Frederick the Great.
  • Colonies need to band together, 1754 Intercolonial congress. 7/13 colonies delegates showed up. Wanted to keep Iroquois on the British side. Also wanted to unite colonies.
  • Ben Franklin "Join or Die" - led Albany Congress

Braddock's Blundering and Its Aftermath:

  • British General Braddock sent to Virginia
  • 1755 - 2000 men - capture Fort Duquesne
  • On their way, encountered French and Indian army, Washington shot at and Braddock wounded.
  • 1756 - British launch invasion of Canada - British got weakened w/ defeat.

Pitt's Palms of Victory:

  • British leader William Pitt - well-liked. "Organizer of Victory"
  • 1758- Pitt's army defeated French at Louisbourg
  • Next Quebec - James Wolfe. French were defeated and city surrendered.
  • Montreal fell in 1760. Peace settlement in Paris 1763. French power completely thrown off North America.
  • Spain got trans-Mississippi Louisiana, New Orleans. Traded Florida for Cuba w/ Britain.
  • North America now dominantly British.

Restless Colonists:

  • British wouldn't recognize Americans militia-men above the rank of captain.
  • British "snobs," American "scum
  • American trade with French and Spanish enemies
  • Britain forbade all export in New England and Middle colonies
  • Colonists didn't want to pay for war. Wanted privileges of Englishmen w/out the duties of Englishmen.
  • colonial disunity: geographical barriers and distance, conflicting religions, varied nationalities, and different colonial governments
  • French and Indian War brought colonists together.

Americans: A People of Destiny:

  • Colonies more independent from British
  • Hard for Indians - they had to negotiate with British now
  • 1763 Chief Pontiac led violent campaign to get British out of Ohio
  • British released smallpox among Indians
  • British government issued Proclamation of 17633 - prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachians - to prevent conflict w/ Indians.

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