- Britain, France, and Spain held stake in North American continent
- 9 world wars - America took par in all
France Finds a Foothold in Canada:
- Latecomer in scramble for New World - foreign wars, domestic strife, butcher of Huguenots (Protestants)
- Edict of Nantes - 1598 - tolerate Protestants - France became strong. King Louis XIV
- 1608 - Quebec established - leader Samuel de Champlain - Father of New France.
- Friendly relations with Huron Indians - fought against Iroquois Confederation
- King controlled government - autocratic - no right to trial by jury
- Population grew slowly
New France Fans Out:
- French fur-trappers pursued the beaver - "coureurs de bois"
- Indians recruited into fur trade - disease and alcohol
- They explored everywhere! And extinguished beavers
- French Jesuit missionaries came to convert Indians - explorers and geographers
- Antoine Cadillac - Detroit. Robert de la Salle - Louisiana. French made posts in Mississippi and Louisiana, and New Orleans.
The Clash of Empires:
- King William's War (1689-1697) and Queen Anne's War (1702-1713). British colonists vs. French "coureurs de bois" - primitive guerrilla warfare, Indians on both sides. Spain and France allies.
- Peace treaty - Ultrecht 1713 - Britain won Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Hudson Bay
- British Captain Jenkins got ear sliced off by Spanish. War of Jenkin's Ear 1739 between British and Spaniards. Led to large-scale War of Austrian Succession in Europe and King George's War in America. France allied with Spain.
George Washington Inaugurates War with France:
- Rivalry for Ohio Valley. British colonial families (including the Washington's) gained legal "rights" over part of Ohio. French were building forts here.
- George Washington (head of militia) went to survey land, saw French troops, shot leader. French returned w/ reinforcements and Washington was forced to surrender at Fort Necessity - 1754.
- British uprooted French Acadians to as far as Louisiana ("Cajuns")
Global War and Colonial Disunity:
- The French and Indian War. (The Seven Years War). Fought in America, Europe, the West Indies, the Philippines, Africa, and on the ocean.
- Britain and Prussia vs. France, Spain, Austria, and Russia. German Frederick the Great.
- Colonies need to band together, 1754 Intercolonial congress. 7/13 colonies delegates showed up. Wanted to keep Iroquois on the British side. Also wanted to unite colonies.
- Ben Franklin "Join or Die" - led Albany Congress
Braddock's Blundering and Its Aftermath:
- British General Braddock sent to Virginia
- 1755 - 2000 men - capture Fort Duquesne
- On their way, encountered French and Indian army, Washington shot at and Braddock wounded.
- 1756 - British launch invasion of Canada - British got weakened w/ defeat.
Pitt's Palms of Victory:
- British leader William Pitt - well-liked. "Organizer of Victory"
- 1758- Pitt's army defeated French at Louisbourg
- Next Quebec - James Wolfe. French were defeated and city surrendered.
- Montreal fell in 1760. Peace settlement in Paris 1763. French power completely thrown off North America.
- Spain got trans-Mississippi Louisiana, New Orleans. Traded Florida for Cuba w/ Britain.
- North America now dominantly British.
- British wouldn't recognize Americans militia-men above the rank of captain.
- British "snobs," American "scum
- American trade with French and Spanish enemies
- Britain forbade all export in New England and Middle colonies
- Colonists didn't want to pay for war. Wanted privileges of Englishmen w/out the duties of Englishmen.
- colonial disunity: geographical barriers and distance, conflicting religions, varied nationalities, and different colonial governments
- French and Indian War brought colonists together.
Americans: A People of Destiny:
- Colonies more independent from British
- Hard for Indians - they had to negotiate with British now
- 1763 Chief Pontiac led violent campaign to get British out of Ohio
- British released smallpox among Indians
- British government issued Proclamation of 17633 - prohibited settlement beyond the Appalachians - to prevent conflict w/ Indians.