The format of these notes will be a little different, as we were given a handout to guide the notes for this chapter.
1. What does Andrew Jackson's quote on pg. 256 mean?
When upper classes get special priveleges, lower classes have a right to complain.
2. Main ideas of introductory paragraphs on pg. 256. What was "new" about this era?
New political parties emerged - Democrats and Whigs. New types of "down-to-earth" campaigning, and more common people began to vote (78% in 1840)
The "Corrupt Bargain" of 1824:
Candidates: John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, William H. Crawford, Andrew Jackson. All were "Democratic-Republicans," but this was a loose term.
Issues: Went to the House, Clay and sick Crawford were ousted, Clay (speaker of the House) didn't like Jackson, Adams won, Clay was appointed secretary of state, this was called a corrupt bargain.
Majority popular vote: Andrew Jackson
Majority electoral votes: Jackson won most electoral votes, but not majority
Why was this election thrown to the House? Because there was no majority electoral vote - 12th amendment.
Why was JQ Adams' election considered corrupt by Jacksonians? Because Henry Clay had great influence over the House, and when Adams won, he made Clay Secretary of State.
To what extent was the election truly a "corrupt" bargain? No evidence of bargain, and even if a bargain was struck, it was not necessarily corrupt.
A Yankee Misfit in the White House:
JQ Adams didn't win popularity, nationalist - urged Congress for the construction of roads and canals, wanted national university and astronomical observatory. Adams attempted to deal fairly w/ Cherokees in Georgia - Georgian governer disagreed.
Going "Whole Hog" for Jackson in 1828:
When did Jackson's campaign start? The day of John Q. Adams' election. What had the "Dep Reps" split into? National Republicans-Adams and Democratic-Republicans-Jackson. Mudslinging? Called Jackson's mom a prostitute, wife an adultress, and recounted the many men he hanged. Said Adams bought gambling stuff, and was a pimp. ROFL.
1828 Candidates: Adams (National Republican) [83 electoral votes] and Jackson (Democratic-Republican) [178 electoral votes]
"Old Hickory" as President:
Jackson was a homeboy aristocrat, more a gentleman than commoner, more courtly than crude. The Washington orgy of Jackson's victory was throwing it open to the multitude, almost like the French Revolution.
The Spoils System:
Definition - rewarding political supporters with public office - "what has he done for the party?" "Is he loyal to Jackson?"
Why did Jackson defend the spoils system? On democratic grounds - it was better to bring new blood than encourage development of aristocracy.
Disadvantages of spoils system? Benefits? Incompetents and crooks were given positions of trust. Cemented loyalty to politcal parties.
The Tricky "Tarrif of Abominations"
What does it mean to say tariffs are protective? What is the negative side to tariffs? Tariffs portected American industry against competiton from European manufactured goods. But it drove up prices.
Middle states opinion on tariffs? They supported protectionist tariffs.
New England's stand on tariffs begninning in the 1820s? They supported higher tariffs - thought future prosperity would flow from factories, not the sea.
Southern stand on tariffs? They were against - thought Tariff of 1828 was outrageous.
1824 Congress increased the tariff.
Tariff of 1828 increased the tariff even more. Nicknamed "Black Tariff" or "Tarrif of Abominations"
Why did the south react so angrily against the tariff? Old South was falling on hard times, and thought tariff discriminated against them. Worried about federal interference w/ slavery.
South Carolina Exposition. Who wrote it? What postition did this man hold in Jackson's presidentcy? Compare this with Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Author: It was secretly John C. Calhoun (VP under Jackson). Bluntly propsed that states should nullify the tariff, just the like K&V Resolutions stated to nullify Alien and Sedition Acts.
"Nullies" in South Carolina:
Nullies: South Carolinians who wanted to nullify tariff - wore palmetto ribbons. 1832 Tariff - lowered tariff, but still fell short of Southern demands.
Jackson threatened to hang Nullies and prepared army to sic S. Carolina.
Clay compromised to gradually reduce tariff by 10% over 8 years - Tariff of 1833.
Hayne was the governer of S. Carolina.
Calhoun was the leader of S. Carolina's Nullies.
Force Bill: passed by Congress - president could use army and navy to collect federal tariff duties.
The Trail of Tears:
1790s Indian policy: they tried to civilize Indians by sending missionaries in and promoted literacy.
5 civilized tripes: Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles
Cherokess of Georgia: Cherokee National Council developed constitution in 1827
Action taken by Georgia legislature in 1828: They declared Cherokee tribal council illegal and asserted jurisdiction over Cherokees.
Supreme Court Decision: Supreme Court upheld right of Indians - Jackson refused to recognize this - "John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it."
1830 Indian Removal Act: Provided for the transplanting of all tribes east of the Mississippi.
Black Hawk: Resisted eviction -crushed in 1832 by troops.
Seminoles in Florida: Retreated to Florida Everglades -1837 were forced to move, but some remained.
The Bank War:
Jackson hated monopolistic banking and overbig businesses.
Bank was a monster in Jackson's eyes because they did not issue paper money, they were accountable to moneyed investors, and foreclosed Western farms
Why Bank was similar to a branch of government & positive attributes: Notes were stable, it was the principal depository for government's funds, controlled nation's gold and silver.
Nicholas Biddle: President of US Bank "Czar Nicolas I"
Why does Baily contend that the bank's very existence seemed to sin against the egalitarian credo of American democracy? Because the wealthy share-holders controlled the bank, not common people.
Bank War in 1832: Clay and Webster wanted Jackson to lose popularity (and not get reelected) by vetoing bank.
People for the bank were a minority, though, and were already against Jackson.
Jackson vetoed recharter bill - this amplified the power of president.
In the election of 1832, Clay was overconfident, but Bank helped Clay's campaign.
Election of 1832 was memorable because there was a 3rd party: the Anti-Masonic party. There were also national nominating conventions to name candidates.
1832 Candidates: Henry Clay (National Republican) [49 electoral votes] vs. Andrew Jackson (Democratic-Republican) [219 electoral votes]
Burying Biddle's Bank:
Jackson believed he had a mandate from the people to exterminate the bank because the people voted for him knowing that he had vetoed the recharter, so therefore exterminating the bank was what the people wanted.
By remvoing federal deposits, Jackson buried the bank (no more depositing and shrinking existing deposits)
Because this was ruled unconstitutional, he had to rearrange Cabinet.
Consequences of death of national bank: "wildcat banks" printed lots of unreliable paper money - metallic money could only buy things.
Specie Circular: a decree that required all lands to be purchased w/ metallic money
The Birth of the Whigs:
Whig=opposition to monarchy. Andrew Jackson was called King Andrew I because of his excersise of presidential power.
Clay, Webster, and Clahoun joined forces in 1834 - supported Clay's American System, souther states' righters, northern industrialists, Protestants from Anti-Masonic party.
Election of 1836:
Martin Van Buren vs. scattered Whig candidates. Whigs hoped Van Buren wouldn't get majority and it wuold go to the House, but didn't. HE WON.
Big Woes for the "Little Magician":
Van Buren got his nickname because he was a strategist from New York "The Wizard of Albany."
Handicaps as president: resentment fro being "smuggled" into office, inherited Jackson's enemies, rebellion in Canada/attempt to stay neutral, depression (thanks, Jackson)
Depression Doldrums and the Independent Treasury:
Causes of Panic of 1837: speculation of Western alnds, Bank war and specie circular, financial stingency abroad, failures of wheat crops and subsidies for internal improvements
Divorce Bill: completely divorcing of bank and government altogether.
Independent Treasury Bill: Congress passed in 1840, Whigs repealed in 1841, reenacted in 1846.
Gone to Texas:
1819 - Us abandoned TX to Spain
1823 - Mexico granted land to Stephen F. Austin to bring 300 families.
Davy Crockett - rifleman, died in the Alamo.
The Lone Star Rebellion:
How did the Texas Rebellion and eventual independence affect the United States?
Texas wanted to join the union, but was a slave state. Que problema!
Makers of America: Mexican or Texican?
Moses Austin - 1820 asked for permission to establish 300 famillies in Texas.
Dilemma: Texas needed settlers....but American ones...really?
Stephen F. Austin - took over when Moses died1821 got permission from now independent Mexico to settle.
Texas REvolution = defenders of local rights vs. central authority, not Anglos vs. Mexicans
Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840:
Candidates: Martin Van Buren (Democrat) vs. William Henry Harrison (Whig). Harrison one, Whigs finally in office.
1)Triumph of populist democratic style
2)Formation of two-party system
Liberty of the individual, against "privelege" in government, states' rights
For a renewed national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, moral reforms (prohibition [liquor] and abolition [slavery])
Sorry the notes are kinda weird for this chapter. Good luck!
All you have to remember is Jackson was a jackass. Kcool.
haha jackass yessss
your blog is amazing
What were Evangelicals??
Thank you so much for posting these AMAZING notes. You have no idea how much easier my life just got. and yeah. Jackson's a jackass.
Ya this one was confusing a little but still good... Thanks so much for posting these
Good notes, it's important to remember that Jackson goes down in history as a great president for his force of character and shrewd practices rather than actual political competence. Still one of the most badass presidents of all time though. He beat his own potential assassinator to DEATH with his cane. A frickin cane!
shoutout to Doidge's class
Jackson should've never been president, he messed everything up. I think you need to revise your facts and personal history of Jackson. He was a land speculator himself, and one of the worst! He may have had a modest childhood but he was an aristocrat soon after he started his land speculation.
An example of his horrible actions: He bought a lot of land in the south, that was Native American dominated. No one wanted NA land so it was ridiculously cheap. Then he took his army in the south and wiped out all the NA in that area and ta-da! the land is worth so much more. Then he sells of that land to others and make a ton of people, at what expense? At poor farmers trying to get land, and the lives of thousands of NA. And he didn't just do this once, he did this over and over and over again. No wonder there was so much violence in the south involving the NA at this time...
And you said he was good?
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