Chapter 20: Girding for the War - The North and South 1861-1865

  • Abe Lincoln swon in March 4, 1861 - president of the dis-United States of America.

The Menace of Secession:

  • Lincoln's Inaugural Address: there would be no conflict unless the South provoked it.
  • It would be impossible to separate! The N and S have no geographical borders separating them, what portion of national debt and federal territory would South get?, Fugitive Slave Law?, it would make it easy for European imperialism.

South Carolina Assails Fort Sumter:

  • Fort Sumter in Charleston SC was federal territory and needed reinforcements against South - Abe Lincoln sent them. April 12, 1861 - Carolinians opened fire on the fort - no deaths.
  • North aroused. Lincoln called for 75,000 militiament. Blockaded Southern States.
  • South now aroused - Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, NC joined original 7 - Conf. Capital changed to Richmond, Virginia.

Brothers' Blood and Border Blood:

  • Crucial border states: Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and West VA (it would separate from Virginia in 1861)
  • Lincoln declared the war was not to free blacks - an antislavery war would be unpopular and make border states join the South.
  • In Indian Terr. (Oklahoma), Indians sided with Confederacy. Confed. government agreed to take over federal payments to the tribes, tribes supplied troops to Confed. army
  • Brother's war: S sent 50,000 soldiers N, slave states contributed 300,000 soldiers to Union.

The Balance of Forces:

  • S had advantages: they didn't have to win the fight, just draw and stand firm. Military talented officers: Robert E. Lee, Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson, southerners bred to fight, had sufficient weaponry from seizing federal weapons.
  • Weaknesses: shortages of shoes, uniforms, FOOD, blankets. North had strong economy (farm and factory, 3/4 nations' wealth, 3/4 nations; railroads), N controlled sea (choked off S supplies). N had more manpower (N-22 million+ immigrants, S-9 million immigrants + 3.5 million slaves).

Dethroning King Cotton:

  • Europe's ruling classes took the South's side, but the masses of commoners took the North's side (Uncle Tom's Cabin)
  • South assumed Britain would help them because they relied on King Cotton - but Britain had surplus of cotton.
  • When Britain ran out of cotton in like 1862-1864, they got help from the Union, Egypt and India cotton. North had good grain crops in war years - gave Britain much.

The Decisiveness of Diplomacy:

  • 1861 Trent affair - Union warship stopped British steamer, the Trent, and forcibly removed 2 Confed. diplomats bound for Europe.
  • =>British wanted to go to war w/ Yankees, but cooled down when Lincoln freed Trent prisoners.
  • Britain was chief naval base of Confeds. The Alabama - "British pirate." [North threatened to invade Canada]

Foreign Flare-Ups:

  • 1863 - British 'John Laird and Sons' built ships that could totally destroy north ships - British bought the ships for themselves to avoid war. In 1872, Britain would pay $15.5 million for damage from Alabama and others.
  • N, Irish-Americans launched invasions on Canada (1866 and 1870)
  • Britain established Dominion of Canada in 1867 to bolster Canadians against the US
  • Emperor Napoleon III of France occupied Mexico City in 1863 and declared Archduke Maximilian emperor of Mexico (violating Monroe Doctrine).
  • After Civil War, SoS Seward prepared to march S, Napoleon got the hell out.

President Davis vs. President Lincoln:

  • Confederate government weaknesses - its Constitution couldn't deny future secession, while Jeff Davis had a central gov. in mind, states-righters (esp. Georgia) would threaten to secede.
  • North enjoyed long-standing government, financial stability, and Lincoln was a better leader.

Limitations on Wartime Liberties:

  • Lincoln had to tear some holes in Constitution
  • Lincoln increased size of federal army - something only Congress can do.
  • Directed SoT to give $2 million to 3 individuals for military purposes.
  • Suspended writ of habeas corpus (anti-Unionists could be arrested) - (needed authorization of Congress)
  • Supervise voting on border states
  • Suspension of certain newspapers for "obstructing the war"

Volunteers and Draftees: North and South:

  • North had many volunteers, but by 1863, draft was necessary. Rich boys could get out of it by paying $300.
  • Many riots, deserters.
  • South also relied on volunteers - started drafting men ages 17-50 early as April 1862. Rich could be exempt.

The Economic Stresses of War:

  • North was financially good - excise taxes on alcohol and tobacco increased by Congress, first ever income tax.
  • Morrill Tariff Act increased existing duties 5-10% Protective tariff became identified w/ Republican party
  • "Greenback" paper money printed, bonds
  • 1863 Congress authorized National Banking System
  • South - bonds ($400 mil) - increased taxes - 10% levy on farm produce - printed "blue-backed" paper money

The North's Economic Boom:

  • New factories boomed - inflation - manufacturers and business-people raked in "fortunes of war"
  • New millionaire class born
  • Sewing machines created uniforms
  • Mechanical reapers produced grain to dethrone King Cotton
  • 1859 - Petroleum in Pennsylvania
  • Women: when men left to fight, women often took over jobs, "gov. girls." many women posed as male soldiers, spies.
  • Nursing: Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, Dorthea Dix, Clara Barton, Sally Tompkins

A Crushed Cotton Kingdom:

  • Southern economy suffered. Transportation collapsed.


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Tyler said...

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