- Problems facing the nation:
- How would South be rebuilt?
- How would blacks be free?
- How would South be reintegrated into Union?
- Who would direct reconstruction? President, Congrees, Southern States?
The Problems of Peace:
- All rebel leaders pardoned by President Johnson 1868
- Southern economy in ruins - banks and businesses closed, factories vacated, transportation broken down.
- Agriculture crippled! Weeds, no cotton. Slave-labor gone! Cotton Kings, slave-investors humbled.
- South retained bad attitudes.
Freedmen Define Freedom:
- Many Southern slaveowners resisted and protested emancipation
- Some slaves showed loyalty and stayed with masters, while some joined the Union army and opened a can of whoop-ass on their masters.
- Family, "slave marriages"
- Many moved to towns and cities. Kansas!
- Black churches - Baptists, Methodists, Episcopals
- Education -> development of black schoolhouses
The Freedmen's Bureau:
- Congress created Freedmen's Bureau 1865 - welfare agency (provide food, clothing, medical care, and education to freedmen and white refugees) - run by Oliver O. Howard
- Taught 200,000 blacks how to read
- White-supremacist Southerners (including President Johnson) tried to kill Bureau - expired in 1872.
Andrew Johnson: The Tailor President:
- Johnson - humble orphaned tailor from Tennessee
- Ran with Lincoln because Union party needed support from War Democrats
- Loved states' rights and the constitution
- Wrong man, wrong place, wrong time.
- 1863, Lincoln claimed "10% Reconstruction Plan": A state could be reintegrated w/ the Union when 10% of voters pledged oath to US and pledge emancipation
- 1864 Congress' Wade-Davis Bill: 50% of voters take oath and safeguards for emancipation, Lincoln didn't sign.
- Republicans: there were moderates like Lincoln, and radicals that thought S should be punished, emancipation protected
- Johnson recognized 10% plan and issued Reconstruction Proclamation - 1865 - disfrachised leading Confederates, states required to repeal secession ordinances, ratified 13th amendment, disowned Confederate debts.
The Baleful Black Codes:
- Black Codes - first acts of S regimes sanctioned by Johnson to ensure a stable and subservient labor force.
- Blacks had labor contracts - had to work for same employer 1 year - low wages -> violaters were made to forfeit back wages or be forcibly dragged back to work.
- Blacks couldn't serve on juries, barrd from renting/leasing land, punished for "idleness"
- Many former Confederate leaders came to claim seats in Congress 1865.
- Republicans angry - they had enjoyed control of Congress during Civil War (Morrill Tariff, Pacific Railroad Act, Homestead Act)
- Realized South would have 12 more votes in Congress and electoral votes now that blacks were 5/5 of a person.
- Johnson considered Union restored :O
Johnson Clashes with Congress:
- 1866 - Johnson vetoed extension of Freedman's Bureau
- 1866 Congress passed Civil Rights Bill (struck at Black Codes). Johnson vetoed, but Congress overcame it. Johnson "dead dog of White House"
- Civil Rights Bill -> 14th amendment: conferred civil rights and citizenship on freedmen, reduced representation of a state if it denied blacks the vote, disqualified former Confeds. from office, guaranteed federal debt and disowned Confed. debt.
- All "sinfull 11" states except Tennessee rejected amendment.
Swinging 'Round the Circle with Johnson:
- Reconstruction with 14th amendment or without?
- 1866 - Congressional elections
- Johnson travelled, making speeches accusing Congress radicals of planning anti-black riots. Immature. Got votes for Republicans (since he was a Democrat)
- Republicans got more than 2/3 majority in House and Senate.
Republican Principles and Programs:
- Radicals in Senate: Charles Sumner (for black freedom and racial equality), Thaddeus Stevens (black lover) - wanted to keep South out as long as possible
- Moderate Republicans - preferred restraining states from abridging ctiziens rights over federal government to individuals
- By 1867, both factions agreed blacks NEEDED TO VOTE
Reconstruction by the Sword:
- Congress passed Reconstruction Act 1867 - divided South into 5 military districts, commanded and policed by Union soldiers and disfranchised 1000s of former Confederates.
- Also required states to ratify 14th amendment and guarantee black suffrage in their Constitutions
- 1869 - 15th amednment passed - black suffrage ratified by enough states in 1870
- 1866 - Ex parte Milligan - Supreme Court ruled that military tribunals could not try citizens (habeas corpus)
- South organized state governments, by 1877, last federal soldiers removed from states and South reverted to Democrats.
Funny quote: "I was 16 years old before I discovered that damnyankee was two words"
No Women Voters:
- 13th, 14th, 15th amendments - good for abolitionists but not women's righters (same cause)
- Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony campaigned against 14th amendment, which used the word "male"
- Wanted women added to 15th amendment along with blacks
- It would be 50 years till women would get the vote.
The Realities of Radical Reconstruction in the South:
- Southern black men formed Union League: network of political clubs that educated members in their civic duties and campaigned for Republicans -> built black churches and schools, recruited militias to protect blacks.
- Black political participation expanded! - served as Congressmen and state justices
- Former slaveowners angry at white allies of freedmen ("carpetbaggers")
- Scams in government
The Ku Klux Klan:
- Founded in Tennessee in 1866
- Scared black people - "ghosts." Many blacks stopped voting, the others were hurt or even murdered.
- Congress passed Force Acts of 1970 and 1871 - Federal troops stopped much, but intimidation remained.
- White South did a lot to stop blacks from voting.
Johnson Walks the Impeachment Plank:
- Radicals falsely accused Johnson of having a harrem of "dissolute women" - decided to remove him w/ Constitutional processes.
- 1867 Congress passed Tenure of Office Act - federal officials could not be removed without consent of the Senate.
- Johnson dismissed Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton (radical spy) in 1868
- House voted to impeach Johnson for "high crimes and misdemeanors" - "violated the Tenure of Office Act"
A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson:
- House was prosecution (Benjamin F. Butter and Thaddeus Stevens)
- Radicals failed to get 2/3 majority for Johnson's removl
- Johnson's successor would have been radical President of Senate, Ben Wade.
The Purchase of Alaska:
- Russia wanted to dump frozen Alaska, and thought US would be best purcahser b/c they wanted to strengthen them against enemy, Britain.
- 1867 SoS Seward signed treaty w/ Russia. Alaska -> US for $7.2 million
- US bouth Alaska because they wanted to be nice to Russia and land was rumored to have fur, fish, gold.
The Heritage of Reconstruction:
- REREAD! IMPORTANT!
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Certainly a time of upheaval and progress, with groups like the Freedmen's Bureau making a positive impact.
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