The Clash of Cultures on the Plains:
- Indian tribes had forced other Indian tribe sout -> much migration.
- Whites brought disease, buffalo being killed
- Treaties at Fort Laramie (1851) and Fort Atkinson (1853): Federal government established boundaries for the teritory of each tribe -> separated them for white settlement.
- 1860s, intensified policy -> herded Indians to smaller confines "Great Sious Res" and OK.
- Indians called African Americans in army "buffalo soldiers"
Receding Native Population:
- Violent warfare: whites own'd Indians, Sioux own'd whites.
- Colonel George Armstrong Custer "discovered" gold on Sioux lands -> Indians - war! -> Custer's army went for Indians, but they all got killed by Sioux.
- Nez Perce Indians sent to res in Kansas
- Reservation system (whites relized Indians were cheaper/easier to feed than fight)
- Indians died: disease, no more buffalo.
Bellowing Herds of Bison:
- During building of railroad, buffalo were killed to feed workers. Almost extinct by 1885.
The End of the Trail:
- Helen Hunt Jackson - A Century of Dishonor - Ramona - sympathy for Indians
- Humanitarians and Christain missionaries wanted Indians to become white/civilized - federal government displayed force against cults.
- Dawes Severalty Act of 1887: wanted Indians to be civilized, gave Indians land to farm and act white - if they did, they'd get full property title and citizenship in 25 years.
- Res land not allotted to Indians went to white railroads -> proceeds to educate and "civilize" Indians.
Mining: From Dishpan to Ore Breaker:
- "59ers" to Colorade for gold, silver, grin (more miners than minerals), to Nevada "cornstock lode" (gold and silver) uncovered
- "Lucky Strikes" in Montana, Idaho, (West) => ghost towns
- Miners replaced w/ corporations (costly machinery and engineers)
- Women (ran boardinghouses, prostitution) won equality on fronteir and got the vote earlier
- Outpouring of sliver and gold -> Treausry resumed specie payments in 1879
Beef Bonanzas and the Long Drive:
- Meatpacking business sprang w/ transcontinental railroad
- Cowboys from Texas drover herd to railroad terminals.
The Farmers' Frontier:
- Homestead Act of 1862 - allowed a settler to acquire up to 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years, improving it, and paying $30.
- Land on the Great Plains, through, was hard to live on.
- Fraud - corporations got employees to get land w/ resources like timber, minerals, oil
- West of 100th meridian was DRY! => "dry farmin" shallow cultivation => dust bowl
- Irrigation -> dams.
The Far West Comes of Age:
- 1876, Colorado became a state
- 1889-1890, N Dakota, S Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming admitted
- 1896, Utah admitted
- Fed gov made Oklahoma settlement legal 1889 "Bloomers"/"89ers" rushed in ("Sooners" were the ones who came before it was legal)
The Fading Frontier:
- 1890, frontier line no longer discernable - The Significance of the Fortier in American History - 1893 by Frederick Jackson Turner
- National Parks - Yellowstone 1872
- West=safety valve
The Farm Becomes a Factory:
- Cash crop farming
- Mechanization of agriculture -> bonanza farms (some 15,000 acres)
- California: "country of plantations and estates," fruit and veg crops (refridgerated car)
Deflation Dooms the Debtor:
- 1880s, prices went down, and one-crop farmers suffered.
- 1890s - not enough money to go around
- Farms under mortgages, people in debt
- Floods, erosion, droughts. People abandoned towns, esp in Kansas (1887)
- High protective tariffs = good for manufacturers
- 1890, half population farmers, but unorganized and scattered.
The Farmers Take Their Stand:
- Farmers demanded inflation of currency w/ paper money
- 1867 - "The Grange" organized - Oliver H. Kelley -> Farmer social activity
- "Grangers" established cooperatively owned stores, grain elevators, and warehouses -> strove to regulate railway rates and storage fees through state legislatures
- Greenback Labor Party: (1878) inflation and program for imporving lot of labor. 14 members in Congress. Ran James B. Weaver in presidential election of 1880 (didn't win)
Prelude to Populism:
- Farmer's Alliance (TX late 1870s) (black one formed too) => 1890s became the People's Party (Populists): for nationalizing railroad, telephones, and telegraphs, a graduated income tax, "subtreasury", coinage of silver, Coins Financial school 1894 - William Hope Harrey
- Mary Elizabeth Lease
- Populists surprised Democrats and Republicans - ran Weaver for president and got many seats in Congress.
Coxey's Army and the Pullman Stirke:
- Panic of 1893 fed Populists' fire.
- Jacob S. Coxey -> 1894 set out for Washington w/ followers and demands: government relieve unemployment w/ public works program supported by $500 million in notes issued by Treasury -> arrested for "walking on grass"
- Pullman Strike of 1894: Eugene V. Debs organized American Railway Union.
- Pullman Palace Car Company cut wages by 1/3 => workers revolted, overturning cars, helf up railway.
- US Attorney General Richard Olney (backed by Prez Cleveland) got federal troops to crush Pullman Strike (it was obstructing postal service)
Golden McKinley and Silver Bryan:
- Election of 1896. Issue: monetary policy (gold standard or inflate currency w/ silver)
- Republican: William McKinley (Ohio) - served in Civil aWar and Congress. Made by Marcus Alonzo Hanna (big industry in politics). -> Declared for gold standard, loved protective tariff.
- Democrats: Cleveland unpopular because of depression. William Jennings Bryan nominated -> demanded inflation (silver): Democrats had taken Populist stance and many old Democrats secretly hoped for McKinley victory. "Demo-Pop" Party.
Class Conflict: Plowholders vs. Bondholders:
- Bryan - amazing orator - made silver-promoting speeches everywhere.
- Conservatives afraid. Hanna=Chairman of Republicans. $16 million campaign. Fear on their side. Employers threatened to pay workers in 50-cent pieces if Bryan won.
- McKinley won (got populated East and New England votes) and the factory worker.
- Byran's defeat=last serious effort to win the White House w/ mostly agrarian votes. FUTURE OF POLITICS LIED IN CITIES.
Republican Stand-pattism Enthroned:
- 1897 Dingley Tariff Bill - high, but not high enough for some Lobbyists - 46.5%
- Prosperity returned
- Gold Standard Act of 1900 - paper currency be redeemed freely in gold
- Inflation (more gold found)