- High tariff -> retaliatory tariffs (foreign)
- Railroad - charged farmers (who barely used it) more
- Banks charged farmers with higher interest rates (because they were high risks)
- Deflation (farmers wanted inflation!)
- Mechanization -> specialization in one crop
The Grange (The National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry):
- Established 1867 - Oliver H. Kelley - farmer social activity
- Grangers established cooperatively owned stores, grain elevators, and warehouses.
- Granger Law: state law that regulated railroad rates. Mann vs. Illinois 1877 ruled Granger Laws constitutional. Wabash Railroad vs. Illinois 1886 - states can't regulate interstate commerce (defeated Granger laws)
- Interstate Commerce Act 1887 - Forms interstate commerce commission - first law where federal government regulates big business.
- White and black ones.
- Co-ops: pooled money, bought farm machinery, and shared it.
- 1880s. Farmers' party - first significant 3rd party. Western and Southern farmers thought that government was in favor of wealthy
- Wanted more money in circulation. Want inflation - silver standard. (never happened)
- Graduated income tax (more you make, the more you pay - 16th amendment through 1913)
- Government ownership of railroad, telegraph, telephone (never happened)
- Secret ballot (Australian ballot) - all parties and offices appear on one ballot
- Direct election of US Senators (17th amendment through 1913)
- Immigration restrictions
- Initiative and referendum (state legislatures address petitions)
- Absorbed by Democrats (had a chance in election of 1896, but Bryan lost to McKinley)