Chapter 2: The Planting of English America 1500-1733

Intro:
  • Disease and conquest had wiped out many natives in the New World by the year 1600.
  • Africans enslaved on sugar plantations in the Caribbean and Brazil.
  • Florida, New Mexico, and South = Imperial Spain ruled
  • English - Jamestown, VA - 1607
  • French - Quebec - 1608
  • Spanish - Santa Fe - 1610
England's Imperial Stirrings:
  • Queen Elizabeth (Protestant) turned England against Catholic Spain and Ireland, and brutally conquered part of Ireland.
  • Sir Walter Raleigh: brought tobacco and potato to England, eventually beheaded for treason
Elizabeth Energizes England:
  • Francis Drake: "sea dog," plundered Spanish ships for England
  • Newfoundland: First English attempt at colonization
  • Sir Walter Raleigh: expedition landed in Roanoke, "the lost colony"]
  • England pwn'd Spain (Armada, "Protestant wind")
England on the Eve of Empire:
  • Puritans, who worked in wool, were unemployed and nomadic throughout England. "Surplus population"
  • England and Spain = peace.
  • Motives for colonization: unemployment, thirst for adventure, and religious freedom (financed by joint-stock companies).
England Plants the Jamestown Seedling:
  • Jamestown started as a short-term thing to make money
  • The Charter of the Virginia Company ensured colonists the same rights as the English
  • May 24th, 1607 - Jamestown
  • Captain John Smith: Led Jamestown and got them working. Saved by Pocahontas.
  • Most of Jamestown starved.
  • New harsh rule (Lord de la Warr)
Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake:
  • Powhatans and colonists: tense relations
  • Lord de la Warr declared war w/ the Indians, brutal stuff, ended w/ peace settlement. Pocahontas + John Rolfe = <3
  • Second Anglo-Powhatan War = total devastation for natives. By 1685 the Powhatan people were considered extinct (Disease, disorganization, and disposability)
The Indian's New World:
  • Natives badly affected. DISEASE!! Migration. Trade w/ Europeans led to Indian-on-Indian violence (hot!)
  • Middle ground created....(for now)
Virginia: Child of Tobacco:
  • John Rolfe: father of the tobacco industry and saved Jamestown economically
  • Tobacco craze! Needed land to plant more tobacco
  • Beginnings of black slavery
  • House of Burgesses: first mini-parliament
  • James I made Jamestown directly under his control.
Maryland: Catholic Heaven:
  • Founded by Lord Baltimore in 1634: money and religious freedom (Catholic)
  • People wanted land along the Chesapeake
  • Tobacco, indentured servitude
  • Act of Toleration: 1649 - protect Catholics from recent Protestant influx. Tolerate all Christians, death penalty to Jews and atheists.
The West Indies: Way Station to Mainland America:
  • England gained control of some Caribbean Islands, including Jamaica
  • sugar = economy
  • Tobacco = poor man's crop, sugar = rich man's crop
  • African slave crazy in the West Indies!
  • Slaves outnumbered whites 4:1
  • Slave bodes (bad) [Barbados slave code of 1661]
  • Displaced English from Barbados settled in Carolina (1670), and brought slaves!
Colonizing the Carolinas:
  • Civil War in England in the 1640s.
  • Carolina prospered by economic ties w/ W. Indies sugar plantations.
  • Established slave trade. Indians exported.
  • Carolina practically annihilated Indians when they tried to flee from slave trade (1710).
  • Rice = main crop. Africans were good w/ rice, so they imported a TON!
  • Anglo-Spanish wars. Carolina strong.
The Emergence of North Carolina:
  • North Carolinians: poor, irreligious, isolated.
  • Between aristocratic Virginia and S. Carolina, dubbed "a vale of humility between two mountains of conceit."
  • Separated from SC in 1712
  • Pwn'd the Indians
Late-Coming Georgia: The Buffer Colony:
  • Founded in 1733 (last of 13 colonies)
  • "Buffer state", received money from British gov. to protect Carolinas from Spaniards and French
  • Silk and wine. Haven for debtors. "The Charity Colony"
  • James Oglethorpe - a founder and successful leader.
  • missionaries (John Wesley - founded Methodist)
  • early restrictions on black slavery
The Plantation Colonies:
  • MD, VA, NC, SC, GA,
  • All had slavery (Georgia only after 1750)
  • "Soil butchery" from tobacco drove people west
The Iroquois:
  • The Iroquois Confederacy: Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, Senecas.
  • Fur trade, but due to white people, struggled for survival.
  • Longhouses
  • British defeat in the American Revolution left the Confederacy in tatters
  • Iroquois prophet, Handsome Lake, told the people to forsake alcohol, affirm family values, and to revive old Iroquois customs. (Longhouse religion).

4 comments:

Anonymous said...

type-o. Jamestown May 24th, 1607.
not 1907.

anisha said...

thank you :)

Anonymous said...

type-o. Barbados slave codes. not bodes

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