Chapter 3: Settling the Northern Colonies 1619-1700

Intro:
  • North and South: common language and allegiance to England. Religion rather than wealth drove settlers in the north.

The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism:

  • Martin Luther - 1517 - Wittenberg's Cathedral
  • John Calvin: "predestination" - spurred Puritans
  • Puritans were against 'unholy fraternizing,' these were called Separatists. King James I wanted them gone.

The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth:

  • Separatists fled to Holland. They negotiated with the Virginia Company to let them settle in the New World.
  • Settled at Plymouth Bay (outside the domain of the Virginia Company)
  • Mayflower Compact: (not a constitution) submit to the will of the majority. 41 white men signed.
  • William Bradford: governer 30 times! scholar.

The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth:

  • Non-Separatists (less extreme Puritans) formed the Massachusetts Bay Company
  • Started colony off with 11 vessels and 1000 immigrants
  • "The Great Migration" (1630s), 70,000 people came from England to the New World. Mostly to the West Indies, but 20,000 to Massachusetts.
  • John Winthrop: governer for 19 years, talented dude.

Building the Bay Colony:

  • Majority vote system - white, free, church men
  • NOT a democracy - purpose of government was to enforce God's laws
  • John Cotton: member of the clergy, very religious
  • Separation of church and state (in a limited way)
  • "they ate plentifully, drank heartily, sang songs occasionally, and made love monogamously"
  • Serious about life and the idea of hell

Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth:

  • Quaker vs. Puritan trouble
  • Anne Hutchinson: sharp challenge to Puritan orthodoxy
  • Roger Williams: extreme Separatist, wanted to break away from Church of England - was banished.

The Rhode Island "Sewer":

  • Roger Williams fled to Rhode Island and built the first Baptist church. Complete religious freedom.
  • Rhode Island became the most liberal (accepting) of all English colonies.
  • Became a mix of all outcasts, "a sewer"
  • "Independent Man" statue - still here today

New England Spreads Out:

  • Thomas Hooker - Connecticut
  • "Fundamental Orders" 1639 - modern constitution
  • Puritans founded New Haven, even closer church-state relationship
  • New Haven got merged with more democratic Connecticut Valley
  • New Hampshire sprung, fishing, and trading w/ Mass., but then separated and made a "royal colony."

The English:

  • Population explosion + economic depression + religious repression = colonization in the New World
  • 3/4 of immigrant colonists were indentured servants
  • Kept English roots in practice in the colonies

Puritans Versus Indians:

  • 3/4 natives killed by epidemic
  • Wampanoag Indians (Squanto) - peace treaty w/ Pilgrims 1621, "the first Thanksgiving"
  • 1637 hostilities. English vs. Pequots.
  • Intertribal unity! Metacom (King Philip) the Indian leader mounted assaults on English villages.
  • This "King Philip's War" weakened Indians.

Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence:

  • New England Confederation: England was in civil war. Purpose: to protect themselves from Indians, French, and Dutch. Made of 4 colonies. Each colony got 2 votes. Consisted of: MA Bay, Plymouth, New Haven CT, and scattered CT colonies
  • Mass. = most defiant to English King Charles II

Andros Promotes the First American Revolution:

  • Dominion of New England: imposed from London
  • Put restrictions on the American's trade
  • Edmund Andros: head of the dominion. People did NOT like him.
  • 1688-1689 England. Glorious "Bloodless" Revolution. New Protestant rulers => Dominion of New England collapsed. Andros was sent back to England
  • MA was made royal - new charter and new governer
  • Royal grip on colonies relaxed, "salutary neglect"
  • Colonies unhappy with all things English

Old Netherlanders at New Netherland:

  • Netherlands won independence from Spain
  • Henry Hudson: explorer hired by the Dutch East India Company, Hudson went to NY bay and Hudson River.
  • "New Netherland" planted along Hudson River in 1623-1624 (established by Dutch West India Company). Bought Manhattan from Indians for pennies.
  • New Amsterdam - company town - no religious toleration, free speech, or democratic-ness
  • Aristocratic, cosmopolitan, "18 languages!"

Friction with English and Swedish Neighbors:

  • Indians attacked Dutch, so they built a wall: "Wall Street"
  • CT and Mass. unhappy w/ Dutch, wanted to invade them, but didn't
  • Sweden planted colony "New Sweden" on Delaware River
  • Dutch, led by one-legged Peter Stuyvesant, attacked Swedes and Swedish rule came to an end.

Dutch Residues in New York:

  • Duke of York (England) came and pwned the Dutch and renamed it New York.
  • English now had Maine to the Carolinas
  • New York was aristocratic; population decline because of few immigrants.

Penn's Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania:

  • Quakers: rebels, not well-liked
  • William Penn: the Quaker thing attracted him.
  • Penn got land grant for the New World from the king, "Pennsylvania"
  • Advertised his colonies => immigrants!

Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors:

  • Pennsylvania launched in 1681.
  • Quakers + Indians = peace
  • Super liberal and cool with everyone
  • By 1700, surpassed in wealth and popularity only by VA and Mass.
  • New Jersey 1664 was founded. Quakerish and pretty cool.
  • Delaware: 1703 granted assembly, but under gov of Pennsylvania

The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies:

  • Middle = NY, NY, Delaware, and Penn.
  • Fertile soil: breadbasket colonies.
  • Fur trade. Rivers = good.

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Anonymous said...

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