Chapter 3: Settling the Northern Colonies 1619-1700

  • North and South: common language and allegiance to England. Religion rather than wealth drove settlers in the north.

The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism:

  • Martin Luther - 1517 - Wittenberg's Cathedral
  • John Calvin: "predestination" - spurred Puritans
  • Puritans were against 'unholy fraternizing,' these were called Separatists. King James I wanted them gone.

The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth:

  • Separatists fled to Holland. They negotiated with the Virginia Company to let them settle in the New World.
  • Settled at Plymouth Bay (outside the domain of the Virginia Company)
  • Mayflower Compact: (not a constitution) submit to the will of the majority. 41 white men signed.
  • William Bradford: governer 30 times! scholar.

The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth:

  • Non-Separatists (less extreme Puritans) formed the Massachusetts Bay Company
  • Started colony off with 11 vessels and 1000 immigrants
  • "The Great Migration" (1630s), 70,000 people came from England to the New World. Mostly to the West Indies, but 20,000 to Massachusetts.
  • John Winthrop: governer for 19 years, talented dude.

Building the Bay Colony:

  • Majority vote system - white, free, church men
  • NOT a democracy - purpose of government was to enforce God's laws
  • John Cotton: member of the clergy, very religious
  • Separation of church and state (in a limited way)
  • "they ate plentifully, drank heartily, sang songs occasionally, and made love monogamously"
  • Serious about life and the idea of hell

Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth:

  • Quaker vs. Puritan trouble
  • Anne Hutchinson: sharp challenge to Puritan orthodoxy
  • Roger Williams: extreme Separatist, wanted to break away from Church of England - was banished.

The Rhode Island "Sewer":

  • Roger Williams fled to Rhode Island and built the first Baptist church. Complete religious freedom.
  • Rhode Island became the most liberal (accepting) of all English colonies.
  • Became a mix of all outcasts, "a sewer"
  • "Independent Man" statue - still here today

New England Spreads Out:

  • Thomas Hooker - Connecticut
  • "Fundamental Orders" 1639 - modern constitution
  • Puritans founded New Haven, even closer church-state relationship
  • New Haven got merged with more democratic Connecticut Valley
  • New Hampshire sprung, fishing, and trading w/ Mass., but then separated and made a "royal colony."

The English:

  • Population explosion + economic depression + religious repression = colonization in the New World
  • 3/4 of immigrant colonists were indentured servants
  • Kept English roots in practice in the colonies

Puritans Versus Indians:

  • 3/4 natives killed by epidemic
  • Wampanoag Indians (Squanto) - peace treaty w/ Pilgrims 1621, "the first Thanksgiving"
  • 1637 hostilities. English vs. Pequots.
  • Intertribal unity! Metacom (King Philip) the Indian leader mounted assaults on English villages.
  • This "King Philip's War" weakened Indians.

Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence:

  • New England Confederation: England was in civil war. Purpose: to protect themselves from Indians, French, and Dutch. Made of 4 colonies. Each colony got 2 votes. Consisted of: MA Bay, Plymouth, New Haven CT, and scattered CT colonies
  • Mass. = most defiant to English King Charles II

Andros Promotes the First American Revolution:

  • Dominion of New England: imposed from London
  • Put restrictions on the American's trade
  • Edmund Andros: head of the dominion. People did NOT like him.
  • 1688-1689 England. Glorious "Bloodless" Revolution. New Protestant rulers => Dominion of New England collapsed. Andros was sent back to England
  • MA was made royal - new charter and new governer
  • Royal grip on colonies relaxed, "salutary neglect"
  • Colonies unhappy with all things English

Old Netherlanders at New Netherland:

  • Netherlands won independence from Spain
  • Henry Hudson: explorer hired by the Dutch East India Company, Hudson went to NY bay and Hudson River.
  • "New Netherland" planted along Hudson River in 1623-1624 (established by Dutch West India Company). Bought Manhattan from Indians for pennies.
  • New Amsterdam - company town - no religious toleration, free speech, or democratic-ness
  • Aristocratic, cosmopolitan, "18 languages!"

Friction with English and Swedish Neighbors:

  • Indians attacked Dutch, so they built a wall: "Wall Street"
  • CT and Mass. unhappy w/ Dutch, wanted to invade them, but didn't
  • Sweden planted colony "New Sweden" on Delaware River
  • Dutch, led by one-legged Peter Stuyvesant, attacked Swedes and Swedish rule came to an end.

Dutch Residues in New York:

  • Duke of York (England) came and pwned the Dutch and renamed it New York.
  • English now had Maine to the Carolinas
  • New York was aristocratic; population decline because of few immigrants.

Penn's Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania:

  • Quakers: rebels, not well-liked
  • William Penn: the Quaker thing attracted him.
  • Penn got land grant for the New World from the king, "Pennsylvania"
  • Advertised his colonies => immigrants!

Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors:

  • Pennsylvania launched in 1681.
  • Quakers + Indians = peace
  • Super liberal and cool with everyone
  • By 1700, surpassed in wealth and popularity only by VA and Mass.
  • New Jersey 1664 was founded. Quakerish and pretty cool.
  • Delaware: 1703 granted assembly, but under gov of Pennsylvania

The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies:

  • Middle = NY, NY, Delaware, and Penn.
  • Fertile soil: breadbasket colonies.
  • Fur trade. Rivers = good.


Anonymous said...


Anonymous said...

Appreciate history! It's good stuff.

Anonymous said...

Thank You. This is extremely helpful along with the book and the other study materials that my teacher provided.

Anonymous said...

NY,NJ,DE, and PA were the middle colonies. NY's there twice

Anonymous said...

Y'all just shut up, keep your mouths shut if you don't like it. The internet is a vast enough space for you to go some place else, so stop doing it here!

Anonymous said...

by the way is no longer active and there is no alternative. Just use this as a wrap-up, not like a study everything cram