- North and South: common language and allegiance to England. Religion rather than wealth drove settlers in the north.
The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism:
- Martin Luther - 1517 - Wittenberg's Cathedral
- John Calvin: "predestination" - spurred Puritans
- Puritans were against 'unholy fraternizing,' these were called Separatists. King James I wanted them gone.
The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth:
- Separatists fled to Holland. They negotiated with the Virginia Company to let them settle in the New World.
- Settled at Plymouth Bay (outside the domain of the Virginia Company)
- Mayflower Compact: (not a constitution) submit to the will of the majority. 41 white men signed.
- William Bradford: governer 30 times! scholar.
The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth:
- Non-Separatists (less extreme Puritans) formed the Massachusetts Bay Company
- Started colony off with 11 vessels and 1000 immigrants
- "The Great Migration" (1630s), 70,000 people came from England to the New World. Mostly to the West Indies, but 20,000 to Massachusetts.
- John Winthrop: governer for 19 years, talented dude.
Building the Bay Colony:
- Majority vote system - white, free, church men
- NOT a democracy - purpose of government was to enforce God's laws
- John Cotton: member of the clergy, very religious
- Separation of church and state (in a limited way)
- "they ate plentifully, drank heartily, sang songs occasionally, and made love monogamously"
- Serious about life and the idea of hell
Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth:
- Quaker vs. Puritan trouble
- Anne Hutchinson: sharp challenge to Puritan orthodoxy
- Roger Williams: extreme Separatist, wanted to break away from Church of England - was banished.
The Rhode Island "Sewer":
- Roger Williams fled to Rhode Island and built the first Baptist church. Complete religious freedom.
- Rhode Island became the most liberal (accepting) of all English colonies.
- Became a mix of all outcasts, "a sewer"
- "Independent Man" statue - still here today
New England Spreads Out:
- Thomas Hooker - Connecticut
- "Fundamental Orders" 1639 - modern constitution
- Puritans founded New Haven, even closer church-state relationship
- New Haven got merged with more democratic Connecticut Valley
- New Hampshire sprung, fishing, and trading w/ Mass., but then separated and made a "royal colony."
- Population explosion + economic depression + religious repression = colonization in the New World
- 3/4 of immigrant colonists were indentured servants
- Kept English roots in practice in the colonies
Puritans Versus Indians:
- 3/4 natives killed by epidemic
- Wampanoag Indians (Squanto) - peace treaty w/ Pilgrims 1621, "the first Thanksgiving"
- 1637 hostilities. English vs. Pequots.
- Intertribal unity! Metacom (King Philip) the Indian leader mounted assaults on English villages.
- This "King Philip's War" weakened Indians.
Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence:
- New England Confederation: England was in civil war. Purpose: to protect themselves from Indians, French, and Dutch. Made of 4 colonies. Each colony got 2 votes. Consisted of: MA Bay, Plymouth, New Haven CT, and scattered CT colonies
- Mass. = most defiant to English King Charles II
Andros Promotes the First American Revolution:
- Dominion of New England: imposed from London
- Put restrictions on the American's trade
- Edmund Andros: head of the dominion. People did NOT like him.
- 1688-1689 England. Glorious "Bloodless" Revolution. New Protestant rulers => Dominion of New England collapsed. Andros was sent back to England
- MA was made royal - new charter and new governer
- Royal grip on colonies relaxed, "salutary neglect"
- Colonies unhappy with all things English
Old Netherlanders at New Netherland:
- Netherlands won independence from Spain
- Henry Hudson: explorer hired by the Dutch East India Company, Hudson went to NY bay and Hudson River.
- "New Netherland" planted along Hudson River in 1623-1624 (established by Dutch West India Company). Bought Manhattan from Indians for pennies.
- New Amsterdam - company town - no religious toleration, free speech, or democratic-ness
- Aristocratic, cosmopolitan, "18 languages!"
Friction with English and Swedish Neighbors:
- Indians attacked Dutch, so they built a wall: "Wall Street"
- CT and Mass. unhappy w/ Dutch, wanted to invade them, but didn't
- Sweden planted colony "New Sweden" on Delaware River
- Dutch, led by one-legged Peter Stuyvesant, attacked Swedes and Swedish rule came to an end.
Dutch Residues in New York:
- Duke of York (England) came and pwned the Dutch and renamed it New York.
- English now had Maine to the Carolinas
- New York was aristocratic; population decline because of few immigrants.
Penn's Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania:
- Quakers: rebels, not well-liked
- William Penn: the Quaker thing attracted him.
- Penn got land grant for the New World from the king, "Pennsylvania"
- Advertised his colonies => immigrants!
Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors:
- Pennsylvania launched in 1681.
- Quakers + Indians = peace
- Super liberal and cool with everyone
- By 1700, surpassed in wealth and popularity only by VA and Mass.
- New Jersey 1664 was founded. Quakerish and pretty cool.
- Delaware: 1703 granted assembly, but under gov of Pennsylvania
The Middle Way in the Middle Colonies:
- Middle = NY, NY, Delaware, and Penn.
- Fertile soil: breadbasket colonies.
- Fur trade. Rivers = good.