- Puritanism softened
- Regional differences: importance of slavery in the South
The Unhealthy Chesapeake:
- Disease - lowered life expectancy by 10 years.
- Many young men and few women
- Toward the end of the century, population of Virginia and Maryland began to grow (immunity to disease, more women)
The Tobacco Economy:
- Chesapeake: planted tobacco like crazy, exhausted the soil, needed new land, provoked Indian attacks
- Indentured servants labor - tobacco
- "Headright system" - get an indentured servant and get 50 more acres of land
- Indentured servants = hard lives
Frustrated Freemen and Bacon's Rebellion:
- Virginia governer: William Berkeley
- 1676: 1000 Virginians broke out of control led by Nathanial Bacon.
- Killed Indians, chased Berkeley out of Jamestown, and torched the city.
- Bacon died of disease, Berkeley hung many rebels.
- Africans began being imported to Jamestown, but very few
- 1680s: huge influx of black slaves
- "Royal African Company"
- "middle passage" Africa->America. Death rate: 20%
- "Slave codes" - made blacks property
Africans in America:
- Slave life worse in the South
- Chesapeake - tobacco - more family life
- African Americans: mixture of African and American culture and language
- 1712: NYC slave revolt
- 1739: S Carolina blacks revolted (neither were anything major)
- Social structure - plantation owners on top - not like English aristocrats
- Small farmers (largest social group)
- Landless whites: former indentured servants
- Current indentured servants -> black slaves
From African to African-American:
- Brought rice-cropping techniques
- Early slave could buy their freedom
- Became Christians
The New England Family:
- Added 10 years of lifespan from Old England
- Family was center of life. Women had a baby every 2 years until menopause!
- Stable families, grandparents
- Women in the south - more independent, had property titles.
- Women couldn't vote
- Divorce rare, adultery punished harshly
Life in the New England Towns:
- "New England conscience" - Puritan roots
- Meetinghouse - town hall and place of worship
- Elementary education - most people could read and write. In Mass. Harvard was established.
- Voting! Church and politically.
The Half-Way Covenant and the Salem Witch Trials:
- New form of sermon: "jeremiad" - preached Old Testament about peoples' waning piety
- The Half-Way Covenant - agreement between church and adherents - baptism but not full communion to children of existing members
- Puritan congregations opened their doors
- Witch trials - 20 women were hanged because they were accused of being witches by teenage girls
- 1693: witch-hanging prohibited
The New England Way of Life:
- Connecticut: the nutmeg state
- "to get on, to get honor, to get honest"
- rocky soil, cold climate, tobacco couldn't grow, black slavery couldn't exist profitably
- Shipbuilding and commerce
The Early Settlers' Days and Ways:
- Most colonists were farmers
- Not aristocrats from England or poor slummin' it - middle class.
- Huge separation of classes could not exist as it did in England.