- Revoultion to improve character of ordinary Americans: more upstanding, God-fearing, and literate
- Most reforms spurred by religion: the 2nd Great Awakening
- Deism was a counter to puritanism: softened orthodoxy
- =>Unitarian faith: God existed in one person - no trinity, good works, man good
- Reaction to growing liberalism in religion => The Second Great Aweakening: spiritual fervor, conversions, reorganized churches, new sects.
- Methodists and Baptists - most conversions. Methodist preacher Peter Cartwright - flailed and spoke.
- Charles Grandison Finney - greatest revival preacher
- Feminization of religion: majority of church was women, "bring their families back to God"
- W. New York: sermons of hellfire and damnation, known as "Burned-over District." => Millerites/Adventists believed Christ would return Oct. 22, 1844
- Wealthy: Episcopals, Presby, Congregationalists, Unitarians
- Poor: Baptists and Methodists - supported slavery
A Desert Zion in Utah:
- Mormons: Joseph Smith -> Ohio -> Missouri -> Illinois
- 1844 Smith murdered
- Brigham Young became leader -> led Mormons to Utah (1846-1847)
- Population grew - community became prosperous frontier theocracy
- Federal Army 1857 marched against Mromons -> Congress passed antipolygamy laws in 1862 and 1882 - delayed Utah from becoming a state until 1896.
Free Schools for a Free People:
- Tax-supported public education triumphed 1825-1850
- Free vote=>free education
- 1-room schoolhouses, bad male teachers
- Horace Mann - campaigned for more and better schoolhouses, longer terms, higher teacher pay, expanded curriculum.
- Noah Webster - wrote textbooks and dictionary
- William H. McGuffey - wrote "readers" for students
Higher Goals for Higher Learning:
- Small religious colleges: taught boring junk like Latin, Greek, math, philosophy
- State universities (NC, VA)
- Oberlin College (Ohio) admitted women and black people!
An Age of Reform:
- Religion prompted crusades and reform movements - many led by women
- Imprisonment for debt sucked - as common people started voting, state legilators abolished debtors' prisons
- Brutal punishments were being eliminated
- Poor mental people were treated badly :(
- Dorthea Dix - petition of 1843 to MA legislature called for imporved conditions for mentally ill
- 1828 American Peace Society - William Ladd
Demon Rum - The "Old Deluder":
- Heavy drinking common -> less work got done.
- 1826 - American Temperence Society formed - Boston
- T.S. Arthur's Ten Nights in a Barroom and What I Saw There
- Moderates stressed "temperence," extremists believed alcohol should be forbidden by legislation - Neal Dow - "Father of Prohibition" - Maine law of 1851 prohibited manufacture and sale of liquor
Women in Revolt:
- Women were a "submerged sex" - couldn't vote, couldn't down property, treated as minors
- Women were keepers of soceity's conscience
- Women fought for: women's rights, temperence, abolition
- Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony advocated women's rights
- Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell - first female to graduate medical school, Margaret Fuller - transcendentalist, Grimke sisters - antislavery
- Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention 1848 - "Declaration of Sentiments"
- 1825 Robert Owen founded New Harmony, Indiana - sank into contradiction and confusion
- Brook Farm, MA 1841 - transcendentalism - prospered until 1846 - lost building in fire.
- Oneida Community - NY 1848. Free love, birth control.
- All these communistic enterprises failed.
- Shakers - religious - no sex or marriage - went extinct by 1940 HA!
The Oneida Community:
- Founded by John Humphrey Noyes
- No private property, no exclusive relationships - material things (includeing sexual partners) should be shared.
- Ended up as a silverware company.
- I'm ashamed to say that I own Oneida silverware.
The Dawn of Scientific Achievment:
- Nathaniel Bowditch - mathematician, Matthew F. Mavry - oceanographer
- Prof. Benjamin Silliman - pioneer chemist and geologist
- John J. Audobon - Birds of America
- Medicin primative
- Architecture Greek and Roman - 1850s revival of Gothic.
- America exported artists to England and imported art.
- Painting was "obscene," but there were some American painters
- Daguerreotype - rough photography
- Music - blacks and whites - upbeat
The Blossoming of a National Literature:
- By 1820 literature as a profession was spurred - Knickerbocker Group - NY.
- Washington Irving - writer - The Legend of Sleepy Hollow
- James Fenimore Cooper - The Last of the Mohicans
- Willian Cullen Bryant - MA - poems
Trumpeters of Transcendentalism:
- "The Athens of America" - liberalizing Puritan theology.
- Everyone has an inner light that connects us with God
- Ralph Waldo Emerson: Unitarian, lecturer and writer
- Henry David Thoreau: Emerson's friend, poet and nonconformist, individualist. Lived in the woods for 2 years and wrote a book about it.
- Walt Whitman - poet - *gasp* - Leaves of Grass
Glowing Literary Lights:
- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow - poet - popular in US and England
- John Greenleaf Whittier - antislavery poem
- James Russell Lowell - good poet
- Louisa May Alcott - Little Women
- Emily Dickinson
- William Gillmore Sims
Literary Individualists and Dissenters:
- Edgar Allen Poe
- Nathaniel Hawthorne - The Scarlet Letter
- Herman Melville - Moby Dick
Portrayers of the Past:
- George Bancroft: founded American Naval Acadamy, "Father of American History" - wrote American history.
- William H. Prescott
- Francis Parkman
- N. England abolitionists