- Introduction of Eli Whitney's cotton gin 1793 created a deman for labor -> reinvigoratesd slavery in South
"Cotton is King!":
- more slaves -> more cotton
- Cotton also benefitted North -> prosperity of North and South rested on Souther slaves
- Britain depended on trade of American cotton - gave America power, and was monarch of the South
The Planter "Aristocracy":
- South was an oligarchy, influence by planter aristocracy
- John C. Calhoun and Jefferson Davis - rich Southerners w/ obligation to serve public
- Sir Walter Scott's manor/castle fiction inspired an idealized Southern feudal society
- Women commanded household slaves
Slaves of the Slave System:
- Excessive cultivation - land butchery - many went West and Northwest -> Big got bigger and small got smaller
- Slaves could be expensive (to feed and manage)
- Cotton: one-crop economy
- South didn't attract immgrants - more wealth for North
The White Majority:
- Only about 1/4 of whites in the South owned slaves
- Most small slave-owners labored w/ their slaves
- Non-slave-owning whites -subsistence farmers "hillbillies," "crackers" - defend slavery! Why? They hoped to one day own a slave and move up the social ladder. they liked the "raical superiority" because it was the only thing they had.
- Mountain whites - Unionists!
Free Blacks: Slaves Without Master:
- About 250,000 free blacks in South by 1860
- Kind of a "3rd race" - prohibited from certain occupations - resented by slavery-lovers
- Unpopular in North too - most states denied right to vote, barred from public schools
- South liked black individuals, but hated the race. North "liked" the race, but disliked the individuals.
- Congress outlawed slave import in 1808, but there was much illegal smuggling (despite death penalty)
- Wanted slave women to have lots of babies. Many mulatto children - most enslaned
- Slave auctions - yuck!
Life Under the Lash:
- Slavery everywhere meant hard work, oppression, no civil or political rights. Floggings common.
- By 1860, most slaves concentrated in "black belt" S. Carolina -> Georgia, Alabama, Miss, Louisiana
- Majority of blacks lived on large plantations - family life was stable -> slave culture developed.
- Religion was amixture of Christian and African elements
The Burdens of Bondage:
- No rights -no dignity - no "American Dream"
- Slaves sometimes worked minimally - "lazy" - pilfered stuff from masters
- Ill-fated rebellions
- The American Colonization Society wanted to send blacks back to Africa - Liberia founded for this purpose.
- Britain freed slaves of West Indies
- Theodore Dwight Weld - spoke against slavery - travelled through Old NW preaching, wrote pamphlet => influenced Harriet Beechar Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin
- William Lloyd Garrison - antislavery newspaper The Liberator - 9 parts advocate, 1 part awesome.
- => Founded American Anti-Slavery Society
- Black abolitionsists: David Walker, Sojourner Truth, Martin Delaney
- Frederick Douglass - escaped slave - wrote an autobiography
- These abolitionist movements influenced the Liberty Party in 1840, Free Soil Party in 1848, and Republican Party in 1850
The South Lashes Back:
- Souther slave-owners slept w/guns in case of rebellion
- Pro-slavers tried to make slavery soundl ike a good thing
The Abolitionst Impact in the North:
- Northerners upset by antislavery movements -> N.E. made lots of $ from South Cotton slavery
- Union bound together w/ cotton threads