- William Henry Harrison was basically controlled by Secretary of State Daniel Webster and Henry Clay
- Harrison died of pneumonia after 4 weeks in the White House
- Virginian John Tyler became president - kind of a Democrat - had problems w/ Whig pro-bank, pro-protective tariff, pro-internal improvement ideals
John Tyler: A President Without a Party:
- Clay designed new "Fiscal Bank" - reestablish Bank of the United States - Tyler vetoed
- Whigs pushed bank again, called it "fiscal corporation" - Tyler vetoed
- Whigs started hatin' on Tyler - entier Cabinet resigned except for Webster
- Whigs devised tariff - distribution among states of revenue from land sales in the West. Tyler vetoed.
- Redevised tariff bill w/o dollar distribution (rates about Tariff of 1832) 32% tax - Tyler reluctantly signed 1842.
A War of Words with Britain:
- Hatred against Britain brewed (because 2 wars, Federalists dead, snide comments from British travellers)
- "3rd war with England" - only ink was spilled - Yankees indebted to England *tsk tsk* - Panic of 1837
- British force set American vessel on fire "The Caroline" at Niagara, Canada. McLead (mastermind behind burning) freed w/ airtight alibi.
The Lone Star of Texas Shines Alone:
- Mexico didn't acknowledge Texas; independence, viewed them as "province in revolt"
- Texas made treates w/ France, Holland, Belgium for protection (1839). Britain also wanted to help TX - they could check US power in South and make it easier for foreigners to acquire land there - Britain also wanted to trade at Texas (no US tariff) and grow cotton in TX (less dependence on US)
The Belated Texas Nupitals:
- Campaign of 1844 - James K. Polk (pro-expansionist Democrat) vs. Henry Clay (Whig) - Democratic vitory = "mandate to acquire TX"
- Tyler passed resolution early 1845 and hello, Texas!
Oregon Fever Populates Oregon:
- Wilderness from top of Cali to bottom of Alaska - once claimed by: Spain, Russia, Britain, US.
- Britain and Us both had claims on Oregon at the moment
- American pioneers travelled in covered wagons on Oregon trail
- Americans outnumbered British in oregon -> dispute over columbia River/49th parallel/pacific ocean region -> tossed into election of 1844.
A Mandate(?) for Manifest Destiny:
- Polk=former speaker of the House, friend of Jackson, "Young Hickory"
- Manifest Destiny = God had destined the Americans to control the continent, spread democracy. Land greed + "empire," "liberty"
- Polk's campaign = Man. Dest., "Reannexation of TX," "Reoccupation of Oregon" (54'40 or fight!)
- Clay Whigs campaigned "Clay, Union, and Liberty." Clay ( a compromiser ) said he favored annexing TX (to appease the South), but favored postponement (for the North)
- Polk won (anti-Texas Liberty Party screwed Whigs over)
- Democrats winning=mandate for Texas
Polk the Purposeful:
- Polks goals:
- Lower tarrif: Secretary of Treasury Robert J. Walker lowered 32% Tariff of 1842 to 25% (Walker Tariff of 1846). Went through Congress - New England mad :(
- Independent Treasury: Whigs opposed, but it passed in 1846
- Acquisition of California
- Settlement of Oregon dispute - 1846 British (after denying this) proposed 49' border - Senate approved.
Misunderstandings with Mexico:
- California - Mexicans and Indians
- Polk wanted to buy Cali, but relations w/ Mexico sucked
- Rumors that Britain wanted Cali - Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico City 1845 to offer $25 million max for Cali - Mexicans refused
American Blood on American(?) Soil:
- Polk sent troops (under Zachary Taylor) to taunt Mexicans by Rio Grande. Nothing happened.
- Polk asked Congress to declare war on Mexico for 1)unpaid claims, and 2)Slidell's rejection. Congress wanted Mex to fire first - and they did! April 25, 1846, attacked Taylor's army
- Congress voted war!
- Polk: "Mexicans shed American blook on American soil!" Whigs: You sure it's our soil? You sure you ain't just provokin' them?
The Mastering of Mexico:
- Mexican dictator was banished to Cuba - tricked Americans to sneaking him back to Mexico, but then helped Mexicans.
- General Stephen Kerny w/ help of John Fremont (explorer) overthrew Mexican rule in Cali 1846
- General Zachary Taylor marched to Buena Vista - victory!
- General Winfield Scott - battled Mexico City in 1847 - brilliance! Best general ever!
Fighting Mexico for Peace:
- Trist and Scott arranged for armistice w/ Santa Anna, bribed him w/ $10,000
- Trist signed Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in Feb 1848
- Treaty confirmed US title to Texas, and huge are to Cali (half of Mexico) for $15 mil and cancel all debts
- Treaty went to Senate. Whigs against war. Some greedy Southerners wanted all of Mexico. But the treaty was approved!
- Californios: descendents of Spanish and Mexican conquerors in Cali.
- 1769 - Spanish missions for Indians
- => secularization
- W/ American rule, riches to rags
Profit and Loss in Mexico:
- Small war, American increased by 1/3
- Trained army and navy for the upcoming Civil War
- Worsened relations with Mexico and Latin America
- Yanks (against Mex war) thought South just wanted Cali for another slave state - provoked slavery conflict
- Wilmot amendment - no slavery in newly acquired Mexico territory - not passed in Congress but enforced in all but 1 free states.